Anatomy

Human anatomy is the science of the inner structure of a person and separate organs.

Normal anatomy – the anatomy of a healthy human body.

Comparative anatomy – a section of anatomy which studies general regularities of organs structure by comparing them in different animal taxons.

Anatomy

Topographical anatomy – applied section of anatomy which studies the location of organs in space. It is used in surgical practice. It is founded by N. I. Pirogov.

Functional anatomy is a section of anatomy which considers the connection of organism structure with its functions.

Plastic Anatomy is a section of anatomy which studies the external shape of a human body and its proportions. The founder of this science is Leonardo da Vinci.

Pathological anatomy is a scientific and applied discipline that studies pathological painful processes in the body.

Macroscopic anatomy – studies the structure of the body, individual organs and their parts at levels accessible to the naked eye, or with the help of devices that give small magnification (magnifying glass).

Microscopic Anatomy – examines the structure of the organs with a microscope.

With the appearance of microscopes, the anatomy is isolated:

  • histology – the science of animal tissues;
  • cytology – the science of cells.

Methods of studying anatomy:

Anatomy
  • observation;
  • body examination (somatoscopy);
  • dissection (autopsy) – the method is based on the dissection of dead tissue;
  • N.I. Pirogov’s method – method of cutting the frozen body (ice anatomy);
  • injection method – injection of staining agents;
  • corrosion method – method of examination of hollow organs by introduction of solidifying substance and subsequent dissolution of tissues in acids or alkalis in order to get a cast of internal structure of an organ;
  • macro-microscopic method – a method of fine dissection and examination of tissues using a magnifier (developed by V.P. Vorobyev);
  • microscopic methods – microscope examinations;
  • endoscopic method – method of examination of hollow internal organs with the help of endoscope;
  • X-ray (X-ray) – method of examination of internal organs with the help of X-rays;
  • ultrasound – examination of the human body with the help of ultrasonic waves;
  • computer tomography – method of obtaining layer-by-layer image of the object with the help of X-rays with further computer processing of images;
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – method of obtaining a layer-by-layer image of an object without X-rays.