Human psychosomatics is mediated by social factors, and it is social factors that constitute the most fundamental characteristics of holistic psychosomatic activity.
Getting down to the subject of human morphology, we will immediately identify two problems that are not rigidly related to each other.
- The morphology proper (structure or organization) of the psychosomatic integrity of the human body.
- Functional asymmetry of this fundamental integrity.
Considering the first problem, we will focus only on those aspects that are directly related to the professional activity of a social worker (teacher, doctor, lawyer).
We will begin our morphology presentation with a brief designation of areas of the body (catfish) that may appear as a “zone” of psychosomatic activity of the human body. Within the framework of general morphology the human body is divided into the following areas.
Head – the following areas are distinguished: cranial and facial. In the skull area are distinguished frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. In the facial area stand out areas of the eyebrows, eyelids, nose, eye sockets, eyeballs, lip area, chin, cheeks, ears.
The neck consists of the following areas: the occipital area, anterior-sided areas, the anterior area divided into sections lying under and above the hyoid bone, the lateral areas including the sterno-clavicular muscles, and the area of the supraclavicular triangle where the carotid artery is pulsating.
The torso consists of the following segments: chest, abdomen and pelvis. The chest is distinguished by the front surface, the chest as such, and the back surface. The front surface of the chest consists of the area of the chest and the chest area (with the breasts of women) and the area under the breasts. The back includes the area of the scapula and the paddle area. The abdomen consists of the following sections: the front is the abdominal area as such, the side areas of the abdomen, the back area is the lumbar area and the lower back area. The pelvis consists of the pubic region and the femoral-aughty region at the front; the buttock region at the back; and the femoral region at the sides.
The upper extremity (arm) consists of the deltoid region, armpit region, shoulder, elbow, forearm, hand and hand strains.
The lower limb (leg) consists of the thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot area.
When analyzing human morphology, it is necessary to emphasize the biotypology of sexual differentiation. Sex biotypology studies psychosomatic types (common in the individual) due to the different degree of sexual differentiation. The scheme of sex biotypes covers types of sexual insufficiency, hypersexual types and intersex types. Within the framework of sexual insufficiency, the following variants are distinguished: infantilism or youth forms (due to endocrine gland dysfunction) and male and female eunuchoidism (due to sex hormone deficiency). Hypersexual types: hyperandryism (satiriasis) in men with highly developed sexual characteristics, hyperhidernism (nymphomania) in women. Intersex types: hermaphroditism (presence of glands of the opposite sex and undefined – male or female – morphology), feminism in men and virilism in women (in terms of secondary sexual characteristics).
When studying morphology of a person, it is also necessary to take into account age criteria for the development of his body. From the point of view of psychosomatics – “hotspots of biography”, through which every person who has lived to a certain age somehow passes. Much attention was paid to the study of age criteria in ancient times, especially during the Hippocrates and Galen, as well as in the Renaissance (Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, etc.). Almost all “systems” of human typology are built with age “corrections” in mind.
The morphology of human body development is represented by different stages, in which the processes of “assimilation” of external “material” (natural and social), manifested by simple body growth, prevail. Body growth is subject to the laws of alternation (alternation every six months and alternations that cause material substrates for biography “hot spots”). On the basis of alternation processes, body growth may be divided into the following periods: “turgor” (primus, secundus, tertius) – with prevalence of growth in width and depth and periods of “proceritas” (prima, secunda) – with prevalence of growth in length. The whole growth period can be divided into childhood (first and second), puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, the psychosomatic evolution of man ends.